- leather bands
- Reinforcements in the form of straps, usually of a thick, strong, tanned skin, secured to the spine together with a case-type cover by secondary tackets. The ends of the bands pass over the joints of the case and are attached to the sides with ornamental lacing. Centrally-placed straps may also be extended into a strap and buckle fastening associated with a fore-edge envelope flap. Leather bands are typically found on tacketed stationery bindings, but are very occasionally found on printed books. In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century British stationery bindings, the bands were often made of russia calf and the bands were consequently known as 'russia bands'. Lacing of a variety of colours and materials, most often white (from parchment or alum-tawed thongs), as well as coloured textile ribbons, was used to secure the ends of the bands to the cover, with the intention of creating a decorative effect by contrasting the colour of the lacing with that of the case, in addition to the intricacy of the ornamental lacing patterns.
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