adhesive-laminated board (material)
- Boards in which pieces of a previously-manufactured sheet material are held together with an adhesive. Such boards were from an early date also known as pasteboards, but this term has traditionally been used almost exclusively of boards made from paper, and within that category, has been used rather indiscriminately of different types of paper board and cannot be relied on to denote exclusively this type of board manufacture. Adhesive laminates have also been made from parchment, leather, tawed skin, textile, papyrus and hemp fibre as well as paper (or combinations of these), and had the advantage for the binder both of allowing for any thickness of board, depending on the number of laminations used and of being able to be made in the binder's workshop rather than bought from specialist board manufacturers. They could also be used effectively at a thinness at which wooden boards became too brittle to use safely. Adhesive-laminate boards using sheets of parchment are known in western Europe from as early as the twelfth century, but the use of paper is particularly associated with the Islamic world and for this reason early western European examples mostly come from Spain. By the mid-fifteenth century, however, paper adhesive-laminate boards became increasingly popular in Italy and from there spread northwards until, by the first quarter of the sixteenth century, they can be found in all western European countries (Hobson, Humanists, Appendix 1). They can often be distinguished from couched-laminate boards where damaged corners are visible. Adhesive laminates tend to break down cleanly into their separate layers, whereas couched-laminate boards separate leaving fibres attached between and to the separating surfaces.
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