- The Aq Qoyunlu '[those with] white sheep' were a nomadic Turkmen confederation centred on Diyar Bakr 1378-1508 (AH 780-908), who established power through marital alliances with the Byzantines in the later 14th century. They submitted to Timur (q.v.) and were rewarded with the grant of Diyar Bakr. Under Uzun Hasan (1457-1478), they extended their rule as far as Khurasan, Iraq and the Persian Gulf, but were overthrown by the Ottomans (q.v.) and Safavids (q.v.).
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